Questions about Psychology
What is a Psychologist?
Since Dr. Stroup received her training in the United States, the American
Psychological Association (APA) definition of a "Professional Psychologist" will be
offered: "Psychologists have a doctoral degree in psychology from an organized,
sequential program in a regionally accredited university or professional school."
According to the APA, "it is the general pattern to refer to master's-level positions as
counselors, specialists, clinicians, and so forth (rather than as "psychologists")."

On the other hand, it is common practice in many countries, including Turkey, to refer
to master's level - and indeed bachelor's level - positions as psychologists.
What is a Clinical Psychologist?
Clinical Psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with maladaptive or
abnormal human behavior. Clinical psychologists perform diagnosis, treatment, and
research. This field's historical approach is principally anchored in medicine. Clinical
psychologists are increasingly focused on clinical practice and application of
scientific research for the benefit of patients.

According to the APA's Society of Clinical Psychology, "An earned doctorate from a
Clinical Psychology program represents the basic entry level for the provision of
Clinical Psychology services. Unique to Clinical Psychology training is the
requirement of substantial course work in the areas of personality and
psychopathology, resulting in comprehensive understanding of normal and
abnormal adjustment and maladjustment across the life span."
What do PsyD and PhD mean?
PsyD stands for Doctor of Psychology. It is
awarded to graduates of programs
designed to produce practitioners who
apply the science of psychology. In this way
it is comparable to the MD, or Doctor of
Medicine, degree, which is for practitioners
applying the science of medicine.
The PhD, on the other hand, is a research-oriented degree, awarded to graduates of programs designed principally to produce
researchers - not practitioners - of various academic and scientific disciplines, such as history, business, sociology, or the various
branches of psychology up to and including clinical psychology.
Nevertheless, it should be noted that both PsyDs and PhDs (in psychology) receive training and supervision in both clinical practice
and in the conduct of research. The distinction is a matter of emphasis - not of an absolute difference. They are equivalent degrees
with different orientations - the PsyD to clinical practice and the PhD in Psychology to academic research. However, many PsyDs
become accomplished professors and researchers alongside their PhD counterparts. Similarly, many PhDs depart from their
academic background to develop clinical practice skills like those of their PsyD colleagues.
What is the difference between Psychiatry and Psychology?
A psychiatrist has completed medical school and holds an M.D. (Doctor of Medicine) degree or a D.O. (Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine)
degree. In Residency, he or she received specialized training in the field of psychiatry.  As physicians, psychiatrists have achieved a
rigorous  medical education and abide by the medical traditions of professional ethics and medical responsibility for providing
comprehensive care.

A psychologist may have completed a master's degree, or if fully licensed, holds a doctorial degree from a university or a professional
school, a Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosphy) or a Psy.D. (Doctor of Psychology), or an Ed.D. (Doctor of Education).  Generally, if he or she is in
clinical practice, the degree will be in Clinical Psychology.  Psychologists treat mental and emotional disorders with psychotherapy.
Clinical Psychologists also specialize in psychological testing and evaluation.
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Dr. Emel Stroup
(0538) 304 04 15
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